tree 1920x560

Tree of Life by Donald Chretien. The Ministry of Education is using this painting, with the author’s permission, to illustrate their https://www.ontario.ca/page/reconciliation-tree page.

 

By Raman Sarai

In response to the Truth and Reconciliation Calls to Action 62 and 63 around Education the Ontario Ministry of Education worked on revising the current Social Studies (4-6) and History (7-8, 10) curriculum.  “Revisions focus on strengthening the learning connected to Indigenous perspectives, cultures, histories and ways of knowing. This includes treaty education, the impacts of the residential school system, and the Indian Act.”

 By Charis Kelso with Kate Gatto

 YPI photo cropped

Winning YPI students at Sir Wilfrid Laurier CI

 

How can we authentically demonstrate to students that they can make a positive difference in their community? This is a question that I think every good Civics teacher should be asking themselves. The program I describe in this blog has been transformative for countless students at my school, Sir Wilfrid Laurier C.I. in Scarborough; for the culture of the school as a whole; and for me personally as an educator.

By John Myers

grade 7

Several issues ago I gave an account of how a small class of Teacher Candidates at OISE tackled the issue of incorporating new curriculum expectations by adding an Indigenous lens to existing curriculum. “Starting from scratch” seemed an appropriate title since we had constraints related to time, busy schedules, lack of detailed understanding of the issues and little access to the quality professional learning being advocated by the proponents of the curriculum changes.

I have been around long enough, been in enough classrooms, and talked to enough teachers to know that these conditions are more the norm. So, we tackled the grade seven curriculum anyways since we wanted to do the right thing. Our standard for integration was James Banks’ four approaches to multicultural education for which we provided an easy-to-read version on slideshare: https://www.slideshare.net/keziamae/multicultural-education-45874904.

Our second article in the series noted what ideas for unit, lesson, and assessment design we agreed upon. The third piece presented two overview lessons we saw as necessary for reviews or at least checks on whether students had some foundational understanding of appropriate vocabulary and the history of contact prior to grade 7. Such an overview is likely necessary for any curricular forays into Indigenous or other studies not part of what we have conventionally done. For example, how much meaning would students get out of the conscription crisis of 1917 without referring back to the history of Anglo-French relations in the previous two centuries?

As you explore the lessons below and in future issues of Rapport think about “entry points” and which level of Banks’ framework was achieved. Given what is reported and from feedback I received, something, however imperfect and incomplete, is better than nothing. I had noted from the outset of this series that for writers the hardest step is the first: putting something on a blank page.

Off to the four lessons for the first unit: New France and British North America, 1713-1800.

Lesson 1: British North America in 1713

Lesson 2: Perspectives on the Seven Years War and the Treaty of Paris

Lesson 3: Society in British North America

Lesson 4: Joseph Brant and the American Revolution

Lesson 4 by Vincent Spano

 

LESSON TITLE : Joseph Brant and the American Revolution

Joseph Brant painting by George Romney 1776 2

Painting of Joseph Brant, 1776, by George Romney. Wikimedia Commons. 

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_Brant_painting_by_George_Romney_1776_(2).jpg

 

 

TIME:  80 minutes (2 class periods)

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  1. Students will conceptualize American expansion through the perspective of the Six Nations as seen by Joseph Brant.
  2. Students will recognize the differences in perspective between Joseph Brant and dominant American officials.
  3. Students will conceptualize the notion of displacement vis a vis progress, expansion and independence.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. FOR: Introduction; What does the word revolution mean? Rebellion?
  2. AS: Observe and make anecdotal notes on engagement with primary sources.

 

PLANNING NOTES:

  • Concepts such as displacement, revolution, rebellion, loyalty and perspective will be considered using the 6 Nations efforts during the American Revolution.
  • Content and disciplinary concepts will be considered and applied using a primary source testimony made by Joseph Brant in London, as well as a secondary source memoir of Joseph Brant authored in 1872
  • Students will also critically engage with a primary source developed by an American author who attempts to leverage the 6 Nations onto their side of the war. This document precedes Brant’s speech.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS):

This unit will focus on building both content knowledge and skills with the students. Diagnostic assessments/observations will ensure that prior knowledge on the outcome of the American Revolution is shared. In terms of content, it is expected that students know about the transition from New France to British North America, and the impact that this transition had on Indigenous populations. Students will also rely on their prior knowledge with engaging with primary sources in order to engage with these primary sources with a critical lens.

 

ACCOMMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

Use of maps, class read alouds with frequent debriefs.

 

RESOURCES:

Speech Made by Joseph Brant http://www.bartleby.com/268/8/2.html

 

Journals of the Continental Congress - Speech to the Six Nations; July 13, 1775

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/contcong_07-13-75.asp

 

Joseph Brant Biography http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/thayendanegea_5E.html

 

Memoir of Joseph Brant https://archive.org/details/cihm_11032

 

Political Map 1774 http://canadahistoryproject.ca/images/images-1774/intro-map.png

 

5 Nations Map http://www.jannaludlow.co.uk/Assets/Ang_7_Count_5_NationsMap.jpg

 

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS  / DURATION:

 

Minds On: (5 minutes)

What is the difference between Revolution and Rebellion? Brief discussion will be summarized on an anchor chart.                                 

 

Critical Question: (1 minute)

What are the implications of an American Revolution for Indigenous populations, and what informs the perspectives of Indigenous peoples? We will investigate the impacts of this war through the example of Joseph Brant.

                                                                       

Action: 70 minutes

Students will be provided online and hardcopy access (based on needs and length) to primary and secondary sources as well as maps (outlined in the resource section of this lesson). Students are encouraged to find other supporting documents to inform their engagement with the topic: British, Americans, First Nations and French Canadians on the war. Present on chart paper.

 

Questions:

1. What informs Indigenous perspectives of the war?

2.How are these perspectives different from American ones? Based on the sources encountered?

3.Is Joseph Brant the best case study to understand the Indigenous perspective? Why or why not?

4.How does a revolution for some displace and impact the freedom of others according to the sources?

 

Consolidation: 5 minutes

Pose the Critical Question to the class and allow for discussion of the Critical Question: What are the implications of an American Revolution for Indigenous populations, and what informs the perspectives of Indigenous peoples?

 

HOMEWORK:

Find an article online or in the newspaper about a global conflict which contains more than one perspective on the conflict. Question: what are the disagreements between the perspectives? Does the newspaper seem to favour one perspective over the other?

Lesson 3 by Cassandra Reda Gavin

constitutional act 1791

Changes as a result of the Constitutional Act of 1791. Ontario Ministry of Government and Consumer Services. The Changing Shape of Ontario. Ontario's Boundaries, 1791. http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/maps/ontario-boundaries.aspx#1791

 

 

LESSON TITLE: Society in British North America

How does life as a British/French/Indigenous North American in 1763-1800 compare to your life now as a current contributing member of Canadian society?

 

TIME: 80 minutes

 

EXPECTATIONS:

Overall:

  • A1. Application: Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713-1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present day Canada (Focus On: Continuity & Change; Historical Perspective)

 

Specific:

  • A1.1 Analyze key similarities and differences in social values and life between present day Canadians and some different groups and/or communities in Canada between 1713-1800
  • A1.2 Analyze some of the main challenges facing individuals and groups in Canada between 1713-1800 and ways in which people responded to those challenges, and assess similarities and differences between some of these challenges and responses and those of present-day Canadians
  • A2.6 Communicate the results of their inquiries using appropriate vocabulary and formats appropriate for specific audiences
  • A3.3 Identify key social and economic changes that occurred in and/or affected Canada during this period, and explain the impact of some of these changes on various individuals, groups, and/or communities

  • A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada during this period and explain their contribution to Canadian heritage or identity

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1.  Time Capsule Artifact (group assessment)
  • Success criteria will be co-created with students on expected practices for group work.
  1.  Historian Blog Entry (individual assessment)
  • Students will respond to the following inquiry questions: How does the object that you brought to Show and Tell today represent your current lifestyle? What do you think your artifact will tell people 1000 years from now what society was like during your lifetime?
  1.  Student Self-Assessment (assessment tools)
  • Time Capsule Artifact
    • I have contributed in some way to my group’s Time Capsule artifact.

 

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

     Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • Entries are historically relevant, creative, and highly representative of the daily life of my group’s people.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • Historian Blog Entry
    • This blog entry is insightful and answers the question being asked in a clear and articulate way manner.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • This blog entry demonstrates critical thinking and a thorough understanding of the subject area.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of Students):

  • In order to successfully participate in this lesson, students should have a clear understanding of the geographies of the different populations, an idea of the different perspectives of various populations, and some knowledge of current Canadian events and present societal norms.
  • Students should be familiar with the following vocabulary prior to this lesson: New France, resources, Seven Years War, treaty, Indigenous, Haudenosaunee, British North America, settlers, War of American Independence, Loyalists, Acadians
  • New vocabulary presented in this lesson: extortion, small-pox, The Constitutional Act of 1791
  • Students should be able to read and analyze primary and secondary documents, be able to research and identify significant information, take notes, and summarize.

 

ACCOMMODATIONS / MODIFICATIONS:

  • Students will be provided with both text and online resources to critically analyze and draw conclusions from for their inquiry, and will be provided with a variety of hands on materials for them to write, sketch, or model artifacts for their group Time Capsules.
  • Students will be part of whole group discussions, small group work, and individual work to provide various ways of learning for students.
  • ELL students will be given vocabulary sheet prior to the lesson
  • All blog reflections may be submitted either orally or in text form

 

RESOURCES:

The Constitutional Act of the Province of Lower Canada (several pages of original doc): http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.21241/2?r=0&s=1

The Nova Scotia Magazine: http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.8_06254

Collection of text, maps, documents, & artifacts representing resources & trade: http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/trade.aspx

Canada in the Making: https://web.archive.org/web/20150219015549/http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals _e.html

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS:

 

MINDS ON: 20 minutes

 

Whole Class Show & Tell

At the beginning of the lesson, students will be invited to form a Community Sharing Circle (a strategy that they are familiar with) and bring objects from home to the circle. The Talking Stick will be passed around and students holding the rock will be asked to:

  • Describe their object, what it is, and where it came from.
  • Explain why they chose that object to represent their current lifestyle. Students will be encouraged to share their own understandings of current Canadian society, describing the physical and political environment, touching upon some current events and ongoing issues.
  • The critical question: “How does life as a British/French/Indigenous North American in 1763-1800 compare to your life now as a current member of Canadian society?” will be introduced, and the students will split into their pre-set groups to prepare for The Constitutional Act mini-lesson and research period.

 

ACTION: 50 minutes

 

Whole Class

  1. Mini-lesson on The Constitutional Act of 1791 (15 mins)

 

Group Work

  1. Research & Time Capsule activity (35 mins)
  • Students will get into pre-selected groups
  • Each student will be provided a device and encouraged to explore print resources as well
  • Each group will be given a series of Inquiry questions having to do with their respective peoples that are to help guide their creation of an artifact to contribute to the class Time Capsule. The questions are listed below and will be provided on a hand-out for each group to reference
  • Artifacts may take the form of: miniature models of food/objects/trinkets, “letters”, personal notes, official documents or transcripts, etc.

 

Inquiry questions from the Ontario curriculum

The French

The Loyalists

The Haudenosaunee

What was life like for the French colonies? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

What was life like for the Loyalists? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

What was life like for the Haudenosaunee? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

 

CONSOLIDATION: 10 minutes

 

Whole Class & Individual

After activity wrap-up, students are invited to rejoin the Community Sharing Circle to share their group’s artifact, and contribute it to the class Time Capsule. Students are encouraged to respond to some or all of the inquiry questions that guided their research and explain briefly how this research helped them in the creation of their artifact.

 

HOMEWORK:

 

Blog entry – Respond to the following questions:

  • How does the object that you brought to Show and Tell today represent your current lifestyle?
  • What do you think your artifact will tell people 1000 years from now what society was like during your lifetime?