Lesson 4 by Vincent Spano

 

LESSON TITLE : Joseph Brant and the American Revolution

Joseph Brant painting by George Romney 1776 2

Painting of Joseph Brant, 1776, by George Romney. Wikimedia Commons. 

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Joseph_Brant_painting_by_George_Romney_1776_(2).jpg

 

 

TIME:  80 minutes (2 class periods)

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  1. Students will conceptualize American expansion through the perspective of the Six Nations as seen by Joseph Brant.
  2. Students will recognize the differences in perspective between Joseph Brant and dominant American officials.
  3. Students will conceptualize the notion of displacement vis a vis progress, expansion and independence.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. FOR: Introduction; What does the word revolution mean? Rebellion?
  2. AS: Observe and make anecdotal notes on engagement with primary sources.

 

PLANNING NOTES:

  • Concepts such as displacement, revolution, rebellion, loyalty and perspective will be considered using the 6 Nations efforts during the American Revolution.
  • Content and disciplinary concepts will be considered and applied using a primary source testimony made by Joseph Brant in London, as well as a secondary source memoir of Joseph Brant authored in 1872
  • Students will also critically engage with a primary source developed by an American author who attempts to leverage the 6 Nations onto their side of the war. This document precedes Brant’s speech.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS):

This unit will focus on building both content knowledge and skills with the students. Diagnostic assessments/observations will ensure that prior knowledge on the outcome of the American Revolution is shared. In terms of content, it is expected that students know about the transition from New France to British North America, and the impact that this transition had on Indigenous populations. Students will also rely on their prior knowledge with engaging with primary sources in order to engage with these primary sources with a critical lens.

 

ACCOMMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

Use of maps, class read alouds with frequent debriefs.

 

RESOURCES:

Speech Made by Joseph Brant http://www.bartleby.com/268/8/2.html

 

Journals of the Continental Congress - Speech to the Six Nations; July 13, 1775

http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/contcong_07-13-75.asp

 

Joseph Brant Biography http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/thayendanegea_5E.html

 

Memoir of Joseph Brant https://archive.org/details/cihm_11032

 

Political Map 1774 http://canadahistoryproject.ca/images/images-1774/intro-map.png

 

5 Nations Map http://www.jannaludlow.co.uk/Assets/Ang_7_Count_5_NationsMap.jpg

 

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS  / DURATION:

 

Minds On: (5 minutes)

What is the difference between Revolution and Rebellion? Brief discussion will be summarized on an anchor chart.                                 

 

Critical Question: (1 minute)

What are the implications of an American Revolution for Indigenous populations, and what informs the perspectives of Indigenous peoples? We will investigate the impacts of this war through the example of Joseph Brant.

                                                                       

Action: 70 minutes

Students will be provided online and hardcopy access (based on needs and length) to primary and secondary sources as well as maps (outlined in the resource section of this lesson). Students are encouraged to find other supporting documents to inform their engagement with the topic: British, Americans, First Nations and French Canadians on the war. Present on chart paper.

 

Questions:

1. What informs Indigenous perspectives of the war?

2.How are these perspectives different from American ones? Based on the sources encountered?

3.Is Joseph Brant the best case study to understand the Indigenous perspective? Why or why not?

4.How does a revolution for some displace and impact the freedom of others according to the sources?

 

Consolidation: 5 minutes

Pose the Critical Question to the class and allow for discussion of the Critical Question: What are the implications of an American Revolution for Indigenous populations, and what informs the perspectives of Indigenous peoples?

 

HOMEWORK:

Find an article online or in the newspaper about a global conflict which contains more than one perspective on the conflict. Question: what are the disagreements between the perspectives? Does the newspaper seem to favour one perspective over the other?

Lesson 3 by Cassandra Reda Gavin

constitutional act 1791

Changes as a result of the Constitutional Act of 1791. Ontario Ministry of Government and Consumer Services. The Changing Shape of Ontario. Ontario's Boundaries, 1791. http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/maps/ontario-boundaries.aspx#1791

 

 

LESSON TITLE: Society in British North America

How does life as a British/French/Indigenous North American in 1763-1800 compare to your life now as a current contributing member of Canadian society?

 

TIME: 80 minutes

 

EXPECTATIONS:

Overall:

  • A1. Application: Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713-1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present day Canada (Focus On: Continuity & Change; Historical Perspective)

 

Specific:

  • A1.1 Analyze key similarities and differences in social values and life between present day Canadians and some different groups and/or communities in Canada between 1713-1800
  • A1.2 Analyze some of the main challenges facing individuals and groups in Canada between 1713-1800 and ways in which people responded to those challenges, and assess similarities and differences between some of these challenges and responses and those of present-day Canadians
  • A2.6 Communicate the results of their inquiries using appropriate vocabulary and formats appropriate for specific audiences
  • A3.3 Identify key social and economic changes that occurred in and/or affected Canada during this period, and explain the impact of some of these changes on various individuals, groups, and/or communities

  • A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada during this period and explain their contribution to Canadian heritage or identity

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1.  Time Capsule Artifact (group assessment)
  • Success criteria will be co-created with students on expected practices for group work.
  1.  Historian Blog Entry (individual assessment)
  • Students will respond to the following inquiry questions: How does the object that you brought to Show and Tell today represent your current lifestyle? What do you think your artifact will tell people 1000 years from now what society was like during your lifetime?
  1.  Student Self-Assessment (assessment tools)
  • Time Capsule Artifact
    • I have contributed in some way to my group’s Time Capsule artifact.

 

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

     Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • Entries are historically relevant, creative, and highly representative of the daily life of my group’s people.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • Historian Blog Entry
    • This blog entry is insightful and answers the question being asked in a clear and articulate way manner.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

  • This blog entry demonstrates critical thinking and a thorough understanding of the subject area.

1                         2                         3                           4                         5

                   Not at all                                     Somewhat                                    Very much so

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of Students):

  • In order to successfully participate in this lesson, students should have a clear understanding of the geographies of the different populations, an idea of the different perspectives of various populations, and some knowledge of current Canadian events and present societal norms.
  • Students should be familiar with the following vocabulary prior to this lesson: New France, resources, Seven Years War, treaty, Indigenous, Haudenosaunee, British North America, settlers, War of American Independence, Loyalists, Acadians
  • New vocabulary presented in this lesson: extortion, small-pox, The Constitutional Act of 1791
  • Students should be able to read and analyze primary and secondary documents, be able to research and identify significant information, take notes, and summarize.

 

ACCOMMODATIONS / MODIFICATIONS:

  • Students will be provided with both text and online resources to critically analyze and draw conclusions from for their inquiry, and will be provided with a variety of hands on materials for them to write, sketch, or model artifacts for their group Time Capsules.
  • Students will be part of whole group discussions, small group work, and individual work to provide various ways of learning for students.
  • ELL students will be given vocabulary sheet prior to the lesson
  • All blog reflections may be submitted either orally or in text form

 

RESOURCES:

The Constitutional Act of the Province of Lower Canada (several pages of original doc): http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.21241/2?r=0&s=1

The Nova Scotia Magazine: http://eco.canadiana.ca/view/oocihm.8_06254

Collection of text, maps, documents, & artifacts representing resources & trade: http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/en/explore/online/franco_ontarian/trade.aspx

Canada in the Making: https://web.archive.org/web/20150219015549/http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/aboriginals _e.html

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS:

 

MINDS ON: 20 minutes

 

Whole Class Show & Tell

At the beginning of the lesson, students will be invited to form a Community Sharing Circle (a strategy that they are familiar with) and bring objects from home to the circle. The Talking Stick will be passed around and students holding the rock will be asked to:

  • Describe their object, what it is, and where it came from.
  • Explain why they chose that object to represent their current lifestyle. Students will be encouraged to share their own understandings of current Canadian society, describing the physical and political environment, touching upon some current events and ongoing issues.
  • The critical question: “How does life as a British/French/Indigenous North American in 1763-1800 compare to your life now as a current member of Canadian society?” will be introduced, and the students will split into their pre-set groups to prepare for The Constitutional Act mini-lesson and research period.

 

ACTION: 50 minutes

 

Whole Class

  1. Mini-lesson on The Constitutional Act of 1791 (15 mins)

 

Group Work

  1. Research & Time Capsule activity (35 mins)
  • Students will get into pre-selected groups
  • Each student will be provided a device and encouraged to explore print resources as well
  • Each group will be given a series of Inquiry questions having to do with their respective peoples that are to help guide their creation of an artifact to contribute to the class Time Capsule. The questions are listed below and will be provided on a hand-out for each group to reference
  • Artifacts may take the form of: miniature models of food/objects/trinkets, “letters”, personal notes, official documents or transcripts, etc.

 

Inquiry questions from the Ontario curriculum

The French

The Loyalists

The Haudenosaunee

What was life like for the French colonies? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

What was life like for the Loyalists? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

What was life like for the Haudenosaunee? What were their spiritual practices? How did they educate their children? What was their system of government? How did they meet their needs for food and clothing? What were their medical practices? How did the roles of men and women differ?

 

CONSOLIDATION: 10 minutes

 

Whole Class & Individual

After activity wrap-up, students are invited to rejoin the Community Sharing Circle to share their group’s artifact, and contribute it to the class Time Capsule. Students are encouraged to respond to some or all of the inquiry questions that guided their research and explain briefly how this research helped them in the creation of their artifact.

 

HOMEWORK:

 

Blog entry – Respond to the following questions:

  • How does the object that you brought to Show and Tell today represent your current lifestyle?
  • What do you think your artifact will tell people 1000 years from now what society was like during your lifetime?

Lesson 2 by Luca Schiavone

Lesson Title: Perspectives on the Seven Years War and in the Treaty of Paris  

 

TIME: approximately 80 minutes

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  • A1. Application: Analyze aspects of the lives of various groups in Canada between 1713- 1800, and compare them to the lives of people in present day Canada (FOCUS ON: Continuity & Change; Historical Perspective)
  • A2 Inquiry: use the historical inquiry process to investigate perspectives of different groups on some significant events, developments, and/or issues related to the shift in power in colonial Canada from
France to Britain
  • A2.4 Inquiry: interpret and analyse information and evidence relevant to their investigations, using a variety of tools
  • A3. Understanding Historical Context: Describe various significant events, developments, and people in Canada between 1713-1800, and explain their impact (FOCUS ON: Historical Significance; Cause & Consequence)

 

ASSESSMENT:

  • Day 1: Students will find an example of its lasting effects on modern society by searching injustices facing modern society that they believe connect to the Seven Years War and/or Treaty of Paris.
  • Day 2: Students present their chosen issue facing Indigenous people as a result from the Seven Years War and/or Treaty of Paris.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of Students):

  • Understanding from Grade 5 of relations between French, British, and Indigenous groups.
  • Students will be aware of primary and secondary source analysis.
  • Awareness of who the Seven Nations are.

 

RESOURCES

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS                 DURATION (APPROX)   2 40 minute classes              

 

Minds On: 10 mins

Elephant cartoon gr7lesson no2

 

  • In groups of three to four, students will reflect on the elephant cartoon by answering the question, “What is happening here? And why does everyone have a different answer?”
  • Students write down their answer(s) on a chart paper.
  • As a group, establish that each scientist has a different perspective à define as a class

 

Action: Day 1 – 30 mins, Day 2 – 35 mins

  • Day 1: Students are broken up into groups; and answer their assigned reading from each perspective (see Appendices for readings, and chart paper lay out). Groups will post their charts around the classroom, which will be revisited the day after.
  • Day 1: Students, in their groups, will find an example of its lasting effects on modern society by searching injustices facing modern society that they believe connect to the Seven Years War and/or Treaty of Paris.
  • Day 2: Students present their chosen issue facing Indigenous people as a result from the Seven Years War and/or Treaty of Paris.

 

Consolidation – Day 2: 5 mins

  • Day 2: How much power did their people/group have in comparison to the others and why? Is your group’s perspective valued? Why or why not?

 

HOMEWORK

  • Reverse classroom: students watch “The Seven Years War: Crash Course World History” completing a double entry journal (divided by a vertical line); on the left side of the page students take informational notes and on the right students right down their personal reactions.

 

APPENDICES

Important Perspectives on the Treaty of Paris 1763 Organizer

Name of People / Group

Describe the power this people/ group held in 1763.

Was this people/group’s perspective valued? Why or why not?

BRITISH

FRENCH

Seven Nations (French or English alliance)

 

Document 1: The Treaty of Paris (Who holds the power?)

Treaty of Paris gr7lesson no2

 

Document 2: The Death of General Wolfe by Benjamin West

Think: How are British/French/ Indigenous People being portrayed here?

Death of General Wolfe

 

Document 3: An Iroquois leader’s speech at a treaty meeting

Think: Was the relationship between the Iroquois and European traders good for the tribe?

Scarrooyady, an Iroquois leader, at a 1753 treaty

Scarrooyady’s proclamation to colonist traders is indicative of the attitude that many Native Americans took to the introduction of alcohol by colonists into Native tribes. Native Americans, who had not been previously exposed to rum, rapidly developed addictions, which led to dependencies on colonist traders. Many Natives saw the introduction of alcohol, as well as gunpowder, as extremely detrimental to their continued existence.

“Your traders now bring us scare any Thing but Rum and Flour. They bring us little Powder and Lead, or other valuable Goods. The rum ruins us. We beg you would prevent its coming in such Quantities, by regulating the Traders. . . . We desire it be forbidden, and none sold in the Indian Country. “

Credit: Scarrooyady, an Iroquois leader, at a 1753 treaty. http://www.smithsoniansource.org/display/primarysource/viewdetails.aspx?TopicId=&P rimarySourceId=1188


Lesson 1 by Jenna MacPhail

 

North America 1713

North America After 1713. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:North_America_1713.png

 

 

LESSON TITLE: What did British North America look like in 1713?

 

TIME: approximately 90 minutes

 

EXPECTATIONS

A3. Understanding Historical Context: Describe various significant events, developments, and people in Canada between 1713-1800, and explain their impact (FOCUS ON: Historical Significance; Cause & Consequence)

A3.1 Identify factors leading to some key events that occurred in and/or affected Canada between 1713 and 1800 and describe the historical significance of some of these events for different individuals, groups, and/or communities

A3.2 Identify key political and legal changes that occurred in and/or affected Canada during this period, and explain the impact of some of these changes on various individuals, groups, and/or communities

A3.3 Identify key social and economic changes that occurred in and/or affected Canada during this period, and explain the impact of some of these changes on various individuals, groups, and/or communities

A3.4 Describe some significant aspects of daily life among different groups living in Canada during this period

A3.5 Describe significant interactions between various individuals, groups, and institutions in Canada during this period

A3.6 Identify some significant individuals and groups in Canada during this period and explain their contribution to Canadian heritage and/or identity

 

SUCCESS CRITERIA STUDENTS WILL (with reference to Indigenous people):

  • Identify the different groups that live in North America prior to 1713 (British, French, Acadian, Indigenous, Canadian)
  • Identify where each group lived in North America at this time using the resources provided
  • Understand that within a group of people there are different values and experiences that contribute to the make up and location of each group
  • Understand that groups of people often have similar needs, but these can also differ depending on group culture and values. This will become apparent through the map activity as students start to learn where groups settled and why they may have settled there
  • Needs of different groups can affect relations with others. This could lead to conflict, or alliances

 

ASSESSMENT

  • Students will create a chart of important considerations for each “group”
  • Formative assessment of student comprehension of multiple historical perspectives
  • Students will work towards effective team work skills, and becoming a valued group member, through contribution, collaboration, and respect

 

PLANNING NOTES

  1. Class will begin with teacher asking students who they think lived in Canada at the beginning of the 18th Century. This can be used to gather prior knowledge from the students (Assessment for learning). If required, a teacher could create a K-W-L chart to assess where the students are at with their knowledge of this topic.
  2. Teacher will then confirm the main groups that were present at the beginning of the 18th century (we are specifically focusing on 1713 for this particular lesson).
  3. Students will be split into jigsaw groups of 3-4, and each group will be assigned a “group” (French, English, Acadian, Indigenous).
  4. Each group will be responsible with researching where these groups were living during the time period, using maps, websites, and primary and secondary sources (as provided by the teacher, or through their own internet and library research). They will then create a basic map using the template provided of their locations.
  5. After these jigsaw groups have completed their assignments, new groups will be formed, with one member from each original group. These teams will create comprehensive maps of British North America, portraying where each group was located, and what the map looked like in 1713.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS):

  • Students will need to have a basic understanding of how to read and understand a map, as well as basic knowledge about how to create their own map (this will be determined in as assessment for learning).
  • Students will need to know and understand the following terms:
    • New France
    • Canadian
    • Indigenous People
    • Great Britain
    • Acadian
    • French
    • Secondary sources
    • Primary sources

 

ACCOMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

  • Teacher will hand out materials that will assist with scaffolding research
  • Visual learners will be supported through handouts, maps, and teacher Powerpoint presentation or anchor charts
  • Kinesthetic learners are supported through the jigsaw grouping, as well as the popcorn question period at the end
  • Auditory learners are supported through the teacher scaffolding each activity with questions out loud, as well as circulating the classroom
  • Inquiry questions will be provided in order to assist every student with scaffolding their responses to group discussion

 

RESOURCES

Websites:

http://www.linktolearning.com/grade7history.htm

http://www.militaryheritage.com/7yrsmaps.htm

https://web.archive.org/web/20150215075257/http://www.canadiana.ca/citm/themes/constitution/constitution3_e.html

https://web.archive.org/web/20150311101434/http://www.canadiana.ca/hbc/

https://www.republiquelibre.org/cousture/NVFR2.HTM

https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/mapping

http://www.bac-lac.gc.ca/eng/discover/politics-government/canadian-confederation/Pages/maps-1667-1999.aspx

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS  (APPROX.  90 minutes)

Action:

  1. Introduce students to North America at the dawn of the 18th century
  2. Assign each student their population group for the class
  3. Jigsaw activity to learn about each group for the unit
  4. Draw the initial map of North America in 1713
  5. Consolidate with wrap-up questions

 

Consolidation:

Popcorn style question (assessment as learning) – which groups were in a strong position in 1713? Why, or why not?

What similarities can be seen between where groups settled during this time period, and where they have settled now?

 

HOMEWORK

Assessment of learning: Students will need to write one paragraph (in a journal or blog format) about what they learned in class about who was present in British North America in 1713. To differentiate the assessment of learning, they also have the option to record their thoughts in an audio or video recording, to be submitted to the teacher.

 

By John Myers

John Myers

While I have some background in Indigenous studies in several provinces, including high school teaching about residential schools, as well as personal family connections, I am not Indigenous and would not pretend to understand issues through an Indigenous lens. For example, when I first taught about residential schools in the mid 1970s I was unaware of the “sixties scoop”.  That will be the case for most of us. I have done some quality professional learning through Facing History and Ourselves, as well as OHASSTA workshops, but I will not pretend it is sufficient. Once again, this is the case for most of us.

While school districts in Ontario have a variety of implementation plans, some detailed and all well-meaning and striving to promote high quality learning, many of us will miss out for a variety of reasons.

This project is meant to offer ideas if you are starting from scratch. OHASSTA has and will continue through Rapport and the conference, to suggest additional places to start. Other organizations are doing similar work.

In addition to the work of James Banks who offers a “standard” for determining levels of implementation (cited in earlier posts), I recommend checking out http://www.firstnations101.com. It Presents an overview of a book, First Nations 101 written by Lynda Gray, a member of the Ts'msyen Nation on the Northwest Coast of BC (Gisbutwada / Killerwhale Clan).  Her book is used as a primer for introductory courses in Indigenous studies in several western community colleges.

P.S.

When I got into looking at issues of diversity education in the mid 1970s there were few sources for teachers. Now there are many, both print and online. In the next “Pedagogical Perspectives” in Rapport I shall review a number of these. Some have been featured at OHASSTA conferences and some have not. All have a place whether you are experienced in working with the diversities in your classroom or are “starting from scratch.”