Grade 7 History, UNIT 2 - 1800-1850: CONFLICT AND CHANGE

Lesson 2 by Melissa De Caires

 

Peter Jones dcb

Image of Peter Jones from Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/en/bio/jones_peter_8E.html

 

 

LESSON TITLE: Immigration: Growth and Displacement of Settlement in Upper & Lower Canada and How It Affected First Nations Communities

 

TIME: 80 minutes (2 class periods)

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  1. Explain the reasons for and impact of immigration on First Nations communities in Canada in the early 1800s
  2. Read, interpret and analyze data from maps of the past
  3. Expand on vocabulary learned from introductory lesson (settlement, immigration, displacement)

Curriculum (Specific Expectations):

B1.2 analyse some of the challenges facing individuals and/or groups in Canada between 1800 and 1850

B1.3 analyse the displacement experienced by various groups who were living in or who came to Canada between 1800 and 1850 and how some of these groups dealt with their displacement

B2.3 analyse and construct maps as part of their investigations into some significant events, developments, and/or issues that affected Canada and/or Canadians during this period, with a focus on exploring their spatial boundaries

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Assessment for learning: Think, Pair, Share during the Minds On activity to determine students’ readiness to learn new knowledge and skills, as well as learning about students’ interests
  2. Assessment as learning: Jigsaw activity during the main portion of the lesson, to build on students’ knowledge with modelling and guidance from the teacher
  3. Assessment of learning: 3-2-1 strategy to assess students’ learning at the end of the period and inform further instruction

 

PLANNING NOTES:

  • Answers to the Jigsaw activity can be found using Nelson History 7 textbook or online
  • Teachers will need access to a screen/projector to do mapping activity as a class, or have students do it individually on computers as you speak
  • Teacher will also need to explore and become familiar with the interactive map on the website

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS):

  • Students will need to have prior knowledge in reading and deconstructing maps
  • They will need to have learned about the War of 1812 and how it has affected settlement in Canada during this period

 

ACCOMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

  • Have a word wall available in the classroom for students struggling with the vocabulary
  • Ensure students are grouped accordingly
  • Increase/decrease the amount of key points needed depending on students’ abilities and strengths
  • Provide an alternative to writing down answers, such as orally communicating their thoughts, or illustrating

 

RESOURCES:

  • Jigsaw Worksheet (appendix 1)
  • Interactive maps links

‘Native Population, Economies and Movement, ca 1820’

http://www.historicalatlas.ca/website/hacolp/national_perspectives/native_canada/UNIT_14/UNIT_14_Native_Canada_1820/UNIT_14_frame_NC1820.htm

‘Population Distribution, ca 1825’

http://www.historicalatlas.ca/website/hacolp/national_perspectives/population/UNIT_20/UNIT_20_PopDist_1825/UNIT_20_frame_PD25.htm

Nelson History 7 textbook

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS DURATION (APPROX):       

 

Minds On (15 minutes)

Students will be asked to close their eyes an imagine their favourite place or a place they feel most comfortable in. Have them create a vivid image of this place in their minds, thinking about how it makes them feel, what sound they hear, the smells, and what kinds of things they see or taste. Next, tell students to imagine someone suddenly taking it away, telling them to leave it all behind. Ask students: How does this make you feel? And have a Think, Pair, Share of their responses.

If time permits, have the students’ perspective on the situation change, as they are now the ones intruding on someone else’s space, taking something valuable from someone else. Does this change your initial reaction/feelings? Are you, or could you be, justified in taking what does not initially belong to you?

 

Action

Jigsaw activity   (30 minutes)                                                                                      

Students will be grouped and numbered 1 to 3 within their home groups. Once they are given their questions, they will regroup with students that share the same number (expert group) and identify 2-3 key points in response to each of the questions assigned to them. After each expert group has identified their points, students will go back to their home groups to share and discuss their results. Answers are to be recorded on each section of the Jigsaw worksheet based on the information collected in their expert groups and provided from their home groups.  The questions are as follows:

Group 1

  • What factors influenced people’s decision to move from their homelands to a new country/Canada in 1815?
  • What were some of the travelling conditions people had to endure during this period?

Group 2

  • How did immigration to Canada change the settlements already established prior to their arrival?
  • What is the cholera epidemic and how did it affect the people living in Canada at the time, specifically the First Nations communities?

Group 3

  • What factors impacted the First Nations relationship with their land?
  • Name one First Nations community impacted by immigration and settlement from Britain? What were some of the problems they were facing?
  • Who is Peter Jones and why is he significant?

As a class, discuss students’ results.

 

‘Mapping the Movement’ activity (25 minutes)                                                       

Beginning with a brief review on how to read a map, students will build on their prior knowledge of reading, analysing and interpreting maps from Geography class to complete this activity.

Together as a class, be looking at the map of ‘Native Population, Economies and Movement, ca 1820’ to analyze the information found on this map. Focus on the features of the map (i.e. title, symbols, etc.), and what information is provided.

Questions to consider:

  • Who might be interested in the data presented and collected from this map? Why?
  • What do we understand from this map in terms of immigration and settlement on First Nations communities?

If time permits, also look at map of ‘Population Distribution, ca 1825’ to study the settlement and patterns of European settlement of the time, and compare with initial map.

- What observations and conclusions can be made from these two maps?

 

Consolidation (10 minutes)

Use the 3-2-1 strategy to check students’ learning of this lesson.               

Organized as follows:

  • 3 effects of immigration on First Nations communities and people
  • 2 reasons for British immigration to Canada
  • 1 question/idea you are still wondering about OR an idea/fact you found most interesting

 

HOMEWORK:

Students will answer the following questions with some additional research:

  • How has the settlement patterns of First Nations communities and European settlement changed today?
  • What stayed the same, if anything?

They will find 2-3 points from their map comparison and analysis.

They must include an image/s of the maps they are comparing with its cited sources.            

 

 

 

Appendix 1 JIGSAW ACTIVITY: THE IMPACTS OF IMMIGRATION ON COMMUNITIES

 

For each of the questions below, identify 2-3 key points in the right-hand column.

 

Questions

Key Points

What factors influenced people’s decision to move from their home

lands to a new country/Canada in 1815?

What were some of the travelling conditions people had to endure during this period?

How did immigration to Canada change the settlements already established prior to their arrival?

What is the cholera epidemic and how did it affect the people living in Canada at the time, specifically the First Nations communities?

What factors impacted the First Nations relationship with their land?

Name one First Nations community impacted by immigration and settlement from Britain? What were some of the problems they were facing?

Who is Peter Jones and why is he significant?

Grade 7 History, UNIT 2 - 1800-1850: CONFLICT AND CHANGE

Lesson 3 by Fraser Telford

 

Chippawa 1838 NMC 3007 resized

Brock University, Historical Maps of Niagara, Rough sketch of the roads from Cayuga to Chippewa, https://dr.library.brocku.ca/handle/10464/10610

 

 

LESSON TITLE : The Transformative Power of Transportation

 

TIME: 80 minutes (two class periods)

This lesson will centre on a variety of aspects of the growing transportation networks in upper Canada between the war of 1812 and Confederation.  Students will have the opportunity to look at need for, development of and finally reflect on the effects of the new transportation network first from the perspective of the European colonists and then from that of the First Nations people.

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  1. Students will recognize the shift from individual road building responsibilities to the more top down planning of transportation routes we are more familiar with today.
  2. Students will demonstrate an understanding of the importance of roads to the settlers of Upper Canada, why they were important and how they were built.
  3. Students will be able to identify multiple factors, both internal and external, that would have influenced road construction both in terms of planning the routes as well as the building itself.
  4. Students will understand the effect that roads had on First Nations populations. Students will demonstrate an understanding of how the increase in transportation would have affected their territory, way of life and role in the new economic system.

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. Two written pieces which will be started in groups as graphic organizers and then completed at home in the form of a reflection.
  2. Small group presentations will demonstrate understanding of the assigned reading.

 

PLANNING NOTES:

  • Laminated historical maps of Upper Canada will be needed. Crayons can be used on the plastic and then wiped off after the exercise is completed allowing the maps to be reused.  Ensure there is somewhere that the maps can be stored undisturbed between classes.
  • The University of Guelph has a digital archive of rural diaries (See resources). Preselecting excerpts which touch on roads and transportation will allow students to experience primary documents and voices from the past.  These can be paired with excerpts from text books which will provide them with enough details for their presentation and reflections.
  • Access to computers of some form would allow groups to extend their investigations if time allows.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS):

Students should be comfortable with the early developments of Upper Canada and more specifically the relationship prior to and during the first half of the 19th century between the European settlers and the First Nations people.  Students should have some level of comfort with the difference between primary and secondary documents and be comfortable attaining information from both.  Although not necessarily needed to understand the main concepts some understanding of the changing role of British involvement in Upper Canada after the War of 1812 would give the greater perspective on the period of transportation development they are investigating.

 

ACCOMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

Much of the work will be done in groups which can be pre-planned if the teacher feels this would better serve the class.  Group members can support one another and for the independent writing students can have access to computers or have adjusted expectations in their success criteria for those with IEPs.

 

RESOURCES:

Rural Diary Archive:  https://ruraldiaries.lib.uoguelph.ca/

 

TEACHING / LEARNING TASKS/ DURATION (APPROX):

 

Class #1 (5-10 minutes)

Teacher Presentation                                                                                                    

A brief presentation by the teacher will provide some of the context around the period of time and the region to be investigated.  Mostly this will ensure that all of the students are comfortable with the prior knowledge needed for the next two classes.

 

Mini Group Investigation (10 minutes to investigate + 10 minutes to present)

Students will divide into groups where they will be assigned readings (one primary and one secondary document) which they will use to investigate an individual and the societal group they represent (farmers, clergy, merchants, military/militias).  The focus of the readings will be on road development and the varying needs for using and responsibilities of building and developing roads.  Using short preselected readings students will fill out graphic organizers present their findings to the class.

 

Map Simulation (10 minutes)

For this activity new groups will be made comprised of one member from each of the investigative groups.  Group members will play the role which they had previously investigated.  Using what they know of their character’s needs and road responsibilities they will build roads in lengths based on the luck of a dice role.  Students will have a preselected number of turns (mostly based on time).

Once the turns have been completed and the roads and cleared land have been drawn on the map groups will put the maps away in a pre-assigned location where they will be stored until the next history class.

 

Class #2

Worksheet (10 minutes)

Students will each be given a small reading detailing a First Nation including their original home territory as well as their traditional food sources (hunting, fishing, cultivation, etc.).  Once they have completed a basic work sheet they can move on to the mapping activity.

 

Map Simulation Part 2 (10 minutes)

Using the information from their worksheets students will take turns drawing their territories on the map.  In a different colour from the roads students will draw the necessary transportation routes the First Nation would need to acquire their own food, connect with other First Nations and depending on the assigned tribe connect with the European settlements for trade.  The twist will be that no First Nation territory can cross a European roadway and no First Nation route can cross “private” European land.

 

Group Discussion (10 minutes)

Students will be asked to reflect on how the European establishments and roadways would have affected each of the First Nations’ way of life. Thinking back to when they were in the role of colonists students will also reflect on what they may have done differently in regards to their road and territorial development had they been aware of and had a better understanding of the First Nations people from that area as well as their needs and traditions.

 

Group Presentation (10 minutes)

Each group will present the two or three most important or impactful things that came from their reflections on the activities.  Each presentation should have at least one point on the effects that the road development would have had on the First Nations population.

 

HOMEWORK:

  1. After the first class students are to write a reflection on the role roads played in the lives of colonists in Upper Canada. This should build off of their initial investigation and their role in the map simulation.
  2. After the second class, students are to write a more extensive reflection looking more specifically at how the European development would have affected the First Nations people’s way of life. As an extension to the assignment students will be asked to come up with a modern example of the greater effects of developing or destroying transportation networks.  Students will have access to photos of their map simulations as well as all of the readings and information sheets through Google classroom.

Grade 7 History, UNIT 2 - 1800-1850: CONFLICT AND CHANGE

Lesson 4 by Mary Kate Grey

 

LESSON TITLE:  The Franklin Mystery: Life and Death in the Arctic

 

logo site en. Franklin

From Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History, http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/franklin/home/homeIntro_en.htm

 

TIME: 80 minutes (2 class periods)

 

LESSON QUESTION AND OVERVIEW:

How and why did Franklin's expedition of 1845 flounder where Inuit had thrived for years?

Through the examination of primary and secondary source documents on

http://canadianmysteries.ca/en/index.php students will critically evaluate whether the documents are accurate and valuable to their investigation and compare evidence found in maps, journal entries and newspaper reports. Students will explore historical evidence about the tragic events and come to their own conclusions about what happened and why.

Students will work in groups of two or three and have the opportunity to choose a medium to present their findings to the class.  Example: video, interview, play, essay, and journal.  

Historical concepts will include cause and consequence, historical significance.

Teacher will observe students to assess level of understanding and address any misconceptions.  Students will be assessed on their ability to work together as a group. Communication of learning – through student driven conversation, students should be able to communicate what they have learned and as an extension they can communicate what connections they can draw between groups of people.

 

EXPECTATIONS:

  • Students will analyse two maps as part of their investigations into the development of and tragic events that unfolded after the Franklin Ships disappeared.
  • Students will compare and contrast the special boundaries of the island as seen through both the Inuit and The British explores and discuss the perspectives of the two groups on the challenges and opportunities presented by the natural environment
  • Students will assess ways in which the Inuit and the British explorers responded to the challenges that the physical environments presented

 

ASSESSMENT:

  1. For learning: Introduction: what do you know about the relationship between the Inuit and the British explorers in the 1800s? Has anyone heard about the Franklin Expedition?
  2. As Learning: Students will assess their own learning and work produced through a class- created list of criteria for success.

 

Students will be assessed during this lesson as well as prior and subsequent lessons on their ability to answer questions such as:

  • How do traditional Inuit lifestyles reflect the challenges of life in Arctic regions? How do Inuit use available resources? Is their lifestyle sustainable? What types of factors might affect its sustainability?
  • What are some ways in which Indigenous values regarding living in harmony with the land inform Aboriginal land use?

 

PLANNING NOTES:                      

Students will be arranged into groups of four. Provide each grouping with an envelope that includes a set of maps, two newspaper clippings and one brief description of the events of the Franklin Expedition.

A written explanation of the task will be inside the envelope to reinforce the oral explanation given at the beginning of the class.  Depending on the class and availability of technology, it may be possible to send a link home with students the night before to watch the videos if they are interested.  (plan for time to watch in class)

See Resource section for materials.

 

PRIOR KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED (of STUDENTS): 

Students will have spent the entire year learning about historical thinking concepts. Students will have had exposure to thinking and application questions like:

  • What makes a good historical interpretation?
  • How can we decide what evidence is the most convincing?
  • What makes an event historically significant?

They will have had prior lessons on critically analyzing the maps. They will have studied different landforms and environments in Canada. They will have been exposed to information about Inuit groups.  They will know that Inuit means “coming from the land” as past of earlier lessons therefore, the transition to studying the environment of the land as it relates to people living on the land will be clear.

Students will have had lessons on four types of evidence – hearsay, character, circumstantial and direct.

 

ACCOMODATIONS/ MODIFICATIONS:

  • Students will have the opportunity to choose how they would like to present their findings ( i.e., media presentation, essay, interview, etc.)
  • Flip classroom option for students who may need extra time to process the material and conversely if students are eager to do further research teacher can provide links and list of books and articles.
  • Teacher dictates student pairings as he/she sees best to enhance learning of students with IEPs and/or ELL students.

 

RESOURCES:

http://canadianmysteries.ca/en/index.php

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rOWzYUnXuvg - three minute clip for hook – shows the mummy

The National Film Board has a wonderful library of short documentaries and films that students can watch to better understand the natural environment that they live in such as listed below

“At the Caribou crossing Place”

 https://www.nfb.ca/film/at_caribou_crossing_place_pt_1/

 

Printable links and documents for envelope contents

http://www.mysteryquests.ca/quests/42/support/mq42_0004en.pdf

Maps of King William Island British and Inuit

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/franklin/archive/imageImages/original/KWIDiscoveries.jpg

http://www.canadianmysteries.ca/sites/franklin/archive/imageImages/original/OonaleeEvidence.jpg

 

TEACHING / LEARNING MISSIONS /DURATION (APPROX):                 

 

Minds On Part One: (3 minute video + 3-5 minute discussion)

The students will watch a 3-minute video from the National Film Board collection about Netsilik Inuit groups hunting on the ice in spring:

https://www.nfb.ca/film/group_hunting_on_spring_ice_pt_3/ (1967)

Students will also have been given the opportunity to watch the full-length documentary the night before – flipped classroom. After the video ask the students to share with their partner what are some ways in which Indigenous values regarding living in harmony with the land inform Aboriginal land use?

Students will share their ideas and a discussion about the kinds of technology, clothing, food, navigation techniques and the collaboration between the men and the men and women.

 

Minds On Part Two: (3 minute video + 5 minute transition into groups)

Show the students another 3-minute video revealing the frozen mummies found from Sir John Franklin’s expedition in 1845.  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MW_HjhO-cCY 

When the video is over have the students move into their pre-determined groups of four.

Each group will be given an “Envelope”.  The envelope will contain several artefacts, including maps, diaries and pictures as well as links to websites if they want to do further research (this should be encouraged).

They will all have one main question to answer: (50 minutes)

  • Why did the Franklin men perish in an environment that Inuit had been living in quite successfully for hundreds of years?

Included in the envelope will be a series of questions and charts to help organize their findings (The charts are included in the “Teacher Notes” section on mysteryquest.ca #42 Identifying and Classifying the Evidence)

  • Describe similarities and differences between the two maps.
  • Are the maps accurate? Why or Why not?
  • What factors might have influenced the authors to write/to say what they are reported to have said? How does this observer's evidence compare to the evidence of other observers?
  • If these accounts do not agree, why would you favour one version over another?

 

Sharing Results (10 minute gallery walk)

Students will be asked to report their findings to the class supported by direct evidence they have found from the documents.

Each student will hand in a brief written explanation of the finding of their group in the group based on the criteria made up in previous lessons. For example: a successful write-up will include evidence to support their finding.

By Risa Gluskin, Rapport editor

I started reading Seven Falling Feathers. I could not stop.

Tanya Talagaswshpd

Author Tanya Talaga speaking at SWSH-THHSSSC-TGTA PD Conference, Feb. 16, 2018, at Humberside CI in Toronto. Photo courtesy of Ewan Geddes.

 

Every educator in Ontario should read this book. It reminds us of our fundamental purpose, educating children. One would think that basic features of life, such as humanity, individuality, and community, are present in every Ontario city. How sad, then, when one learns that the teenagers of northwestern Ontario reserves must leave their homes to go to high school in a city where these values seem to be absent, at least for Indigenous young people. Tanya Talaga does a heartfeltly  honest job of portraying the seven teens who lost their lives as full human beings with families that loved them, teachers and counsellors that tried to watch over them, and unfortunately, others who took advantage of them or preyed on them. 

 

As almost all teachers in Ontario are soon to be experiencing revised curriculum based on the Ministry of Education’s response to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s Calls to Action, this is the perfect book to read for context. It links the teenagers’ stories to the long-term effects of Residential Schools and clearly makes the argument that having to leave home to go to high school is just another form of residential school. It links to the inequity of jury selection, a very current topic.  Also connected are systemic flaws such as police bias and inequity of funding for Indigenous education.

 

Sadly, safety was most lacking for the seven students who lost their lives upon going to live in Thunder Bay to attend high school.

 

As teachers, we take it for granted that everyone should be educated in a safe environment. Tanya Talaga’s Seven Fallen Feathers reminds us to work for that to become a reality for every student.

 

You will find many posts related to Indigenous history in this month’s edition of Rapport. As always, if you’d like to comment or contribute, please email me at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it..

 

Risa